Flora and fauna
The flora of the Republic of Moldova is rich and includes more than 5.5 thousand species of wild-growing plants. The rich natural botanical diversity of the Republic of Moldova is strongly influenced by its geographic position and the characteristics of its topography and climate. At the landscape level, the territory of the Republic of Moldova is situated within three natural zones – forest, forest-steppe and steppe. Forests occupy around 11% of Moldovan territory. Broad-leaved forests typical for Central Europe predominate. The largest forest tracts represented by the forest reservations Codrii Moldovei and Plaiul Fagului are located in the center of the country. The forest ecosystems of the country contain 45 native species of trees, 81 native species of shrubs and 3 native species of woody vines. Among the commonest native species of woody plants growing in our forests are the English oak (Quercus robur), durmast oak (Quercus petraea), pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens), European ash (Fraxinus excelsior), European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), Russian elm (Ulmus laevis), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), little-leaved linden (Tilia cordata), European white birch (Betula pendula), and the European beech (Fagus sylvatica).
The fauna of the Republic of Moldova is relatively rich and diverse. More than 15.5 thousand species of animals exist in the Republic of Moldova including 461 species of vertebrates and more than 15,000 species of invertebrates. The vertebrates are represented by 70 species of mammals, 281 species of birds, 14 species of reptiles, 14 species of amphibians and 82 species of fish. The commonest native species of mammals are the long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus), serotine (Eptesicus serotinus), common hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), European mole (Talpa europaea), common shrew (Sorex araneus), Eurasian noctule (Nyctalus noctula), Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), common hare (Lepus europaeus), European suslik (Citellus citellus), spotted suslik (Citellus suslicus), house mouse (Mus musculus), Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), common wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked field mouse (Apodemus flavicollis), red-backed vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), common field vole (Microtus arvalis), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Eurasian deer (Capreolus capreolus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), Eurasian badger (Meles meles), stone marten (Martes foina), European polecat (Mustela putorius), and the least weasel (Mustela nivalis).